• Glossary

    The 4 Ds: Terms described by the organization Hollaback as ways to deal with street harassment: direct action, delegation, distraction, or delay.

    Dominant Group: Refers to social groups that have greater access to power and resources, set the norms and standards, and generally have limited knowledge of the extent of marginalization faced by subordinated groups. They receive privileges whether or not they want them.

    Empowered Bystander or Upstander: Someone who helps create a safer community through a range of behaviors, including standing up and speaking out when they witness situations that could potentially threaten the health and safety of others. Regardless of the term you prefer, Empowered Bystanders and Upstanders actively promote a culture of safety.

    Intersectionality: A term coined by Kimberlé Williams to describe the double bind of race and gender for Black women living in the United States (USA). Intersectionality describes the phenomena of how individuals have multiple social identities and how experiences of privilege and oppression are the result of these various memberships.

    Ism: The suffix of terms that describe forms of social oppression. Examples of, and the groups within each, include:

    Term Dominant Group Subordinate Group
    Racism Whites Non-Whites
    Sexism Cisgender males Trans and cisgender females, trans males, genderqueer and gender non-conforming persons
    Cissexism Cisgender persons (people whose gender identity is the same as the sex they were assigned at birth) Trans, genderqueer and gender non-conforming persons
    Classism Upper and middle classes Working class persons, families and communities with limited socioeconomic opportunities, including individuals who are migrants, undocumented persons, people from reservations, barrios and historic Latino, Black, Asian Pacific Islander, and indigenous communities.
    Ableism Mainstream abled bodies Persons with bodies and physical abilities that fall outside of mainstream representation

    Microaggressions: Defined as brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or not, that communicate a hostile, derogatory, or negative slight or insult toward a targeted group. Microaggressions occur in the context of the larger culture of oppression in regards to race, gender, ability, immigration status, size, and sexual orientation and are directly a result of power and privilege of a dominant group over a subordinated group.

    Radical Consent: Describes that consent is an active process that requires approval for all sexual acts. Consent is never passive; silence or lack of resistance does not equal consent. Consent cannot be obtained by manipulation, verbal or physical pressure, threats, or intimidation. Persons who are under the influence of consciousness-altering substances, asleep or unconscious, or physically restrained cannot legitimately give consent.