• Common Survivor Reactions

    Reactions to sexual assault vary from person to person; there is no "correct" way to respond. Some survivors experience very little disruption of their lives while others experience a range of physical, emotional, and physiological reactions. Survivors process their experience differently and at their own pace. Below is a list of reactions that are commonly reported by survivors of sexual assault. This list is not meant to raise fears; it merely intended to help survivors make sense of what they may be experiencing. Seeking support from friends, family, rape crisis counselors, and therapists is useful when symptoms do present. If you notice any of these symptoms in yourself, consider seeking support from the New School's Counseling and Medical Services. You may want to encourage others to do the same.

    List of reactions to sexual assault

    Intrusive thoughts

    You may experience intrusive thoughts about the sexual assault, making it difficult to stop revisiting the incident in your mind.


    You may have realistic nightmares and dreams about the sexual assault.


    You may relive the event through flashbacks in which the traumatic event is experienced as if it were happening in the present. A flashback is a memory experienced with one or more of the physical senses.

    Sleep problems

    You may have difficulty falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much or too little.

    Social withdrawal

    You may feel numb, emotionally dead, or in a state of denial about the trauma. You may notice the absence of feelings of any kind and have little interest in school, work, or family. Or you may feel embarrassed about the healing process, including the time needed to heal or recover. Others may urge you 'to put it in the past'; or 'get on with your life'; while your feelings are still very present and troubling. You may not want to talk to anyone about the sexual assault for fear of being disbelieved, rejected, or unable to get help.

    Forgetting the assault

    You may not remember the details of what happened to you.

    Problems with memory

    You may have difficulty remembering or concentrating, making it hard to complete daily tasks.

    Self-blame and feelings of guilt

    False but common misconceptions about rape and other sexual assaults may cause you to feel humiliated, ashamed, or embarrassed about what occurred. Survivors—and those around them—often rethink decisions made before an incident, considering whether or not they were factors leading to the assault. Remember that assault is never the fault of the survivor.

    Fear and feelings of unsafety

    Survivors often experience terror and intense fears that are provoked in situations similar to the assault or even ones that are seemingly disassociated from the circumstances of the assault. Fears may be specific—the return of a perpetrator, for example—or vague, causing a general sense of uneasiness.

    Irritability, anger, and rage

    You may experience feelings of anger, ranging from irritability to rage. Survivors often report thoughts of hurting or killing the perpetrator of the sexual assault. If you are thinking about hurting another person, reach out for help.

    Anger turned inward

    Some survivors who struggle to acknowledge or express anger turn it inward. This coping mechanism can lead to forms of depression, including suicidal thoughts; self-injury (cutting, burning, or otherwise hurting oneself); and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Consider seeking help from friends, family, and counselors. If you are thinking about suicide, or know someone who is, reach out for help immediately.

    Grief and loss

    Survivors experience loss in many ways and commonly report concerns regarding who can be trusted and where one can feel safe. Throughout the healing process, you may experience grief over aspects of your life or identity that you feel have been lost or stolen. Some survivors talk about a loss of innocence or a loss of a sense of power.

    Loss of control and powerlessness

    Sexual assault takes away a person's power and control in that moment. After the incident, you may feel a lingering sense of powerless in general or in specific situations.


    Survivors remember assault with all of their senses. Triggers—circumstances identical or similar to those occurring during the assault—bring up feelings related to the traumatic incident. Smells, images, places, sounds, or even seasons or weather conditions may summon intense feelings related to the assault.

    Changes in sexuality or intimacy

    Changes related to sexuality, including interest in or frequency of sexual activity, are common among sexual assault survivors. After assault, some experience fear and aversion to sex and intimacy; others, increased activity. These changes are normal and may remain in flux throughout your healing process.

    Spiritual crisis

    Survivors, particularly those with a religious or spiritual practice, sometimes experience a spiritual crisis as a result of sexual assault. You may feel angry at a supreme being or may reject your faith completely, on a temporary of permanent basis.

    Hypervigilance and alertness

    You may notice exaggerated responses to stimuli or jumpiness after a sexual assault. You may find yourself paying undue attention to your environment, especially ones that feature trigger elements.

    Substance use and abuse

    Survivors may turn to alcohol or other substances in an attempt to relieve their emotional suffering. These coping mechanisms can lead to addiction and therefore should be closely monitored.

    Stockholm syndrome

    Described as a victim's emotional bonding with his or her abuser, Stockholm syndrome develops subconsciously and on an involuntary basis. Associated behaviors include justifying the abuser's actions.


    You may experience persistent feelings of depression, sadness, anxiety, numbness, and emptiness as well as symptoms of sleeping problems, fatigue, and decreased energy.

    Eating problems 

    Your appetite may decline or increase. Eating patterns may reflect efforts to cope with feelings and emotions. These responses are common and may signal opportunities to seek help.

    Body memories and somatization

    You may experience somatic memories—bodily sensations and physical manifestations of emotions—related to the sexual assault. Reactions may be intense and include headaches, migraines, stomach difficulties, lightheadedness or dizziness, hot or cold flashes, grinding of teeth, and sleep disorders. Check with your healthcare provider to rule out any medical problems first.


    Dissociation is understood as a psychological mechanism in which the mind separates aspects of a traumatic event from conscious awareness. Assault survivors may undergo post-trauma dissociation as a means of finding relief from painful or frightening feelings. Dissociation may be experienced as a sense of detachment from their emotions, body, or immediate surroundings. If dissociative coping responses become chronic and difficult to manage, talking to a counselor is encouraged.

    Panic attacks

    Survivors may experience sudden episodes of intense fear that develop for no apparent reason and trigger strong physical reactions. Panic attacks can be very frightening and feel as if one is losing control, having a heart attack, or even dying.

    Places to report assault

    Student Support and Crisis Management

    79 Fifth Avenue, 5th floor
    212.229.5900 x3189 or x3710

    Student Rights and Responsibilities

    79 Fifth Avenue, 5th floor


    55 West 13th Street, mezzanine level
    212.229.7001 (24 hours)


    New York Police Department Special Victims Report Line

    Get medical care

    Beth Israel Rape Crisis Intervention Program
    Emergency room: East 16th Street and First Avenue

    St. Luke's-Roosevelt Crime Victims Treatment Center Locations

    1111 Amsterdam Ave. (W. 114th St.)


    1000 10th Ave. (W. 59th St.)

    Talk to someone

    New School Conseling Services
    80 Fifth Avene, 3rd floor

    Safe Horizon Rape Crisis/Sexual Abuse Hotline

    RAINN Online Hotline

    You may experience reactions that are not listed here; the list is not exhaustive. This is normal. If you have concerns about your well-being, speak with a counselor specializing in sexual assault recovery. More detailed information about some of the above symptoms can be read here.

    Remember that your reactions to sexual assault may also be influenced by other factors, such as identification as male, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. Your physical ability, race and ethnicity, culture, family, economic status, country of origin, and previous experiences of violence all influence how you respond.