Is there a remedy to the evils of modernity? Is politics the only road to overcome them? This lecture course addresses such questions through an intensive engagement with the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The course is divided in four parts. The first will first reconstruct Rousseau's critique of modern society as it emerges from his Discourses. The second part will focus on the political solution proposed by the Social Contract, while the third will explore the individual road outlined in Rousseau's Emile, along with other writings. Finally, we will analyze how the two roads relate to each other, by exploring, among others, the relationship between democracy and spectacle, as it emerges in Rousseau's critique of spectacles.